In the business of the olden Near East when there was the rising of the civilization of Mesopotamia’s range of their influence and contacts, the Gulf had an important function in the most central route by sea. This was the time that the Gilamesh legend was written down and it was being successful with its rulers being widely recognized. Dilmun is thus a venue of trading ships and its stores are filled with wealth of the countries which had its business routes placed strategically. In the main trade routes there were several trading posts that went beyond the land and the sea routes which had been well-travelled. There were regular claims that the monarch needed to be reformed to be able to keep in the hands of people who would ensure that traders would travel wide and with protection.
The concept or reciprocal exchange of valuables, resulting from anthropological studies have been of much influence in guiding how many archeologists think about trade. The documenting methods of this exchange included petrographic study of thin sections. There was also long-distance exchange networks and this led to the suggestion that a system of exchange was active in the British Neolithic. There was also another exchange of bracelets and other ornaments produced from marine shell that is a native of the Mediterranean. Ornaments like those were supplied right across the Balkans and into central Europe around 4000BC and it is obvious that a long-distance trade network was active then. Marine shells were one of the most noticeable features of the exchange. However, in this case, the exchange was land-founded one. The archeologists today view the shell ornaments of that time as fulfilling the function of valuables. The extent of the trade had again to be established by use of a careful characterization study for the purpose of determining the place of origin prior to the explanations in relation to reciprocity between exchange partners can be suggested.
In gift exchanges, the prestigious gifts that are being concentrated on in any ceremonial exchange are of a special kind. They are treasures and they were to be differentiated from the commonplace products such as foodstuffs. There was also the ceremonial exchanges in non-sate societies that were of two varying sorts. The first ceremonial exchanges were aimed at establishing and reinforcing alliances like the kula system. The other competitive exchanges were used in settling rivalries in which the success path was to outdo rivals in the richness of a person’s gifts and the conspicuous nature of public consumption. These exchanges entailed not only the making of conspicuous gifts of valuables and also the actual destruction of valuable in display of conspicuous wealth. It is only y use of awareness of the social roles that material exchange can either mask or represent an entire range of social relationships that can be understood as the significance of the exchange of goods. The study of early exchanges, therefore, provides many insights into the commerce and also into the structure of early societies.
Trade became possible because man had gained the information on how to exploit and produce more than he required. He was able to exchange the surplus products he had produced with other traders and he would take theirs in return. The exchange of artifacts which began at ancient times originated from admiration which could not be satisfied by forcefully taken them from the owner of such item or product. Better ways of storage were developed and even a system of banking which was based on rates and commodities that were value based.
During the reign of Ur-Nanshe, there was he keeping of records of dates of shipments that would happen. Lagash’s wife would export wheat, cedar wood and other products to the island. The rulers’ wives would take part in fish selling like their spouses. These records reveal something of the mechanics of businesses in sates before the traders got their status of being fully independent. The rulers provided products from a one point store to the traders to allow them to conduct business and also exchange the products from Lagash with those form the Dilmuns. Dilmun had an export industry which may have come from the time of the first accession of the Sumerians to the sovereignty in the land towards the fourth century millennium.
The Sumerians seemed to have been motivated to be a protective community but their perception towards the sea was cautious and respectful. But they had to have more lucrative markets for their goods. The gulf waters were running in a counter-clockwise way that was assisting in the improvement of sailing. The ships of the traders would have been able to set out the head of the gulf and go south in accordance with the flow of the counter. The level of the Dilmunite trade overland was formidable and is illustrated by the presence of the court of the king of Mari which was a city on the Euphrates. The Assyrian king commanded that the Dilmuntes should be provided with presents such as sandals, oil and boxwood. The Assyrians sent a caravan to Dilmum hat got commanded to take the goods to Hammuarbi of Babylon who was the leader from 1792 to 1750 BC. It, however, experienced a lot of difficulties before it arrived at its destination.
The mechanics of early trade took many forms as are the current traders. In some instances, the traders would be based in foreign land, away from their homes. This distant posting and residing in small colonies would allow them maintain contact with the headquarters and be in a position of managing the acquisition, exchanging and distributing products with people who they had established relations with. The artifacts would actually travel for more distances to places where the most determined traders reached.
Sumerians perceived trade as being inextricably linked with every aspect of their lives. By attaching the waters of the two great rivers on which their achievement and lives depended on, they produced abundance. Through their plans of the year in connection to the inundations, they established leisure which they used in developing crafts and high technical skills. They also had fertile crops and animals that gave them the ability to trade their extra products for their needs. The Sumerians had from the early periods developed a successful import export business. They at the beginning under the direction of the temples and later they were directed by the secular authorities and traders who were conducting business in their own names. The cities grew and they became significant trading centers for the caravans which came up out of the Iran’s plateau. Iran’s early cities straddled the overland routes as many of the most demanded raw materials such as chlorite in the fourth and the third millennia.
Copper was the most significant metal used in the ancient times. The alloying of copper in the production of bronze was a representation of a significant step forward in the metallurgical practice. The alloy that resulted was stronger and less brittle than copper alone. There was also various methods through which metal and meals artefacts could be produced or manufactured. The casting by use lost-wax method was an essential development.
When the first graves were exhumed on Umm an- Nar island, the culture which they belonged to appeared to have sprung from nowhere. There were flint flakes and blades on the Umm an-Nar, which may have been illustration of the kind that Arabian bifacial tradition can now be ascribed. Years later have seen the disclosure of more clues regarding the origins of the Umm an-Nar culture though it is still not clear. The Umm an-Nar period is interesting as it is just not about tombs and grave gods. There are also sizeable settlements known as Hili, Bidya, Kalba and Tell Abraq. These settlements are dominated by circular towers that are different in size and they were constructed using materials that were locally available.
In conclusion, exchange is an important notion in archeology. During the Bronze Age period, Trade became possible because man had gained the information on how to exploit and produce more than he required. The concept or reciprocal exchange of valuables, resulting from anthropological studies have been of much influence in guiding how many archeologists think about trade. In the business of the olden Near East when there was the rising of the civilization of Mesopotamia’s range of their influence and contacts, the Gulf had an important function in the most central route by sea. The Sumerians perceived trade as being inextricably linked with every aspect of their lives. Through their plans of the year in connection to the inundations, they established leisure which they used in developing crafts and high technical skills. They also had fertile crops and animals that gave them the ability to trade their extra products for their needs. The exchange of artifacts which began at ancient times originated from admiration which could not be satisfied by forcefully taken them from the owner of such item or product.