The greenhouse effect did not appear simultaneously. It has existed ever since our planet has got the atmosphere, and without it the temperature of surface layers of it would have been an average of thirty degrees below the actual temperature. However, in the last century and a half of the content of certain greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased significantly. The cause of the rapid growth of greenhouse gases was found not necessary for a rather long period. Every representative of human civilization produces CO2. Moreover, it is the result of every deed of the human being, starting from the everyday activity and ending with breathing. Cars, factories, air conditioners and even big farms are the producers of the great amount of carbon dioxide, which comes to the atmosphere. With human-related methane and growth (rice fields, cattle, leakage from wells and pipelines) and oxides of nitrogen, not to mention the chlorine organics. Perhaps only in the content of water vapor in the atmosphere of another person has no significant direct impact. Global warming is a trend increase in the average temperature on Earth over the past 100 years. It is calculated according to the data from weather stations around the world. The research paper investigates the origins of the problem of the greenhouse emissions by the urban agriculture and provides the strategies for the reduction of their amount in the atmosphere.
Today, the world is dominated by the theory that the main cause of global warming lies in the appearance of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Moreover, the climate change and the global warming is due to the greenhouse gas emissions, primarily CO2. In principle, CO2 emissions are small in comparison with emissions from natural sources. Since the land and ocean are suppliers of carbon dioxide, but they also absorb it: in the ocean, that makes plankton and on land, these are plants. To summarize these flows, the flow of greenhouse gases from the combustion of fuel is very small compared with the natural flow has the minor impact. Of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, the quarter remains forever in the atmosphere is the CO2 increase, which causes an additional greenhouse effect.
Agriculture is one of the biggest providers of the environmental services, which are not recognized and are not paid as a rule. In addition to its primary role in meeting the growing demand for food and other agricultural products, agriculture plays an important role in the binding part carbon, catchment management and conservation of biodiversity. Nevertheless, agriculture is also a major consumer of natural resources, adding to groundwater depletion, agrochemical pollution, soil exhaustion, and global climate change. Depletion of natural resources, reducing the basis for agricultural production in the future and increase the risks of dependence on, thereby creating large economic losses. However, these costs can often be minimized through a combination of policy reforms and institutional application of innovative solutions and technologies. An integrated policy approach is needed in the implementation of agricultural programs and the environment, as well as climate change and biofuels.
Urban agriculture is the process of getting crop and livestock production in limited spaces in the city (such as vacant lots, courtyards, and balconies of houses). Urban agriculture involves people of various nations and religions around the world. It allows urban residents with low income to save money on the purchase of food. In many countries, urban agriculture continues to be informal and sometimes illegal. Urban agriculture supports policy measures aimed at the recognition of food production within the city limits as a legitimate land use and economic activity. Despite the therapeutic effect, these activities also have the benefit of strengthening the emotional connections in the society and helps to build a friendly community.
The process of urbanization had brought the current need of the agriculture experience in people. Urban agriculture has the opportunity to provide a significant contribution to household food security, which is especially needed when the crisis or food shortage. At the same products are consumed by the manufacturer, or sold in the city markets, such as using recently increasing the popularity of farmers’ markets, which operate in many cities over the weekend. As a local food grown in less need of transportation and cooling products obtained more recent and therefore more nutritious. Consumers, especially those living in cities with low incomes, to afford the availability of the fresh produce in a wider range and at lower prices. Often, manufacturers do not ask for permission. Since this sector is officially invisible, in many cities it is not covered by any government support or supervision. Moreover, it is understandable that the weather conditions in rural and urban areas vary. In the cities, there are no optimal conditions for plant growth. Higher day and night temperatures may impede the process of photosynthesis, which directly affects the amount of crop and goods gathered by the farmer.
Despite the relatively small production volumes, among other industries, urban agriculture is making a significant contribution to the pollution of the environment, for the following reasons. First, almost no economic sector does not use such harmful drugs what are pesticides, and sometimes without a sufficiently strict control. Second, agricultural areas are located mostly on the flat ground in the vicinity of water bodies. It is realistic to assume that it is in these waters primarily come toxicants, washed out of the soil by sewage. Third, the above it mentioned that even conventional fertilizers, which are considered harmless, can be a very persistent soil toxicants. Agriculture is the main source of phosphorus compounds in the biosphere. Moreover, urban agriculture is not an exception. A large number of phosphate annually enters into the natural water due to flushing of phosphate fertilizers from fields under the influence of irrigation and erosion. However, it is characterized by increasing the production of various phosphorus-containing products used in agriculture, daily life, and industry. From other nutrients phosphorus different practical absence of gaseous compounds and poor solubility. The great amount of phosphorus annually enters the oceans and contributes to eutrophication. In addition to mineral fertilizers in agriculture are widely used and organic. The balanced content of essential nutrients and trace elements necessary for plants leads to the formation of high yields, conservation and improvement of soil fertility. The main place among the organic fertilizers belongs to animal waste – manure and bird droppings.
Rational use of these wastes can significantly reduce the production and use of mineral fertilizers. At the same time, and solved the problem of recycling and protecting the environment from pollution excrement. However, their use in the urban atmosphere is rather limited, as they have strong smell not acceptable in the limits of the city. Dung smell that penetrates into people’s homes, which are located close to urban gardens fertilized with manure, usually contains dangerous levels of harmful gases such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and methane. Moreover, very often there is the excess of hydrogen sulfide in the air. It is poisonous to humans’ gas, and can cause symptoms such as nausea, headaches, fainting and vomiting. Although fewer odors from manure removed by the wind, smell it nonetheless gradually penetrates human tissue, clothing, and furniture and is slowly released over time.
Urban agriculture makes extensive use of various techniques and equipment to mechanize and automate the labor of workers in the industry. Moreover, those people who grow vegetables in the urban architecture could spend less money on transportation of the goods, on their packaging and storage. They sell their products on the local markets, and therefore they do not need the tracks and other hard equipment, which is usually used in the big farms. Application vehicle produces the same environmental problems as in transport. The companies, which are associated with the processing of agricultural products, have the same effect on the environment as the food industry. Therefore, when considering environmental practices in the agricultural sector, all these kinds of influence should be considered comprehensively, in unity and relationship, and only this will reduce the effects of the environmental crisis and do everything possible to exit from it.
Nowadays global warming is largely caused by human activity. In this regard, it is the time to understand that we are seeking to fully grasp the extent of our impact is time to finally understand whether we have the right to continue to increase greenhouse gas emissions and harm to the environment, without thinking about the consequences. After all, so far in this regard, there is no regulation, so there is an involuntary arisen question about how far a person can go in manipulating nature. This also applies to attempts to impact on the atmosphere and climate. Moreover, there is the particular connection with human attempts to influence the climate, considering that they are associated with high risks, but their effectiveness is questionable. Resource capacity of the planet Earth is approaching its maximum capabilities, while the population continues to increase. If at the end of the twentieth century, the prospects of the global crisis caused by an unsustainable approach to food security, seemed somewhat distant, but now it becomes obvious that the global ecosystem will not sustain the increasing burden in the coming decades. Thus, according to the scientists, the global water crisis, when the volume of consumption of fresh water will exceed its resources, has already come to an end soon. Environmental threats today are much higher than the threat of famine. The reason for this – the current system of food security, which continues to put at the center of the post-war principle of the last century, which is agreed to be more and cheaper.
Agriculture must provide the population with quality products and environmentally provide a minimum negative impact on the environment. Urban gardening is a great example of the impact on the ecosystem changes through interaction between social and biogeophysical forces. When the company was able to transform vacant lots in the city gardens, thus they learned to change the ecosystem, using the most favorable ways. Moreover, this provision of food, and cultural services in the form of provision of the mental and physical health of society. However, this may lead to serious consequences in the form of down regulating the effects of lead in the soil. The problem for consumers might arise due to its direct contact with the body if fans of slow food did not bother to wash vegetables before eating. Therefore, it is also the significant problem for the society.
The great influence of agriculture on natural resources is still widespread, but there are many opportunities to reduce it. To solve various kinds of problems require special part in response policy and joint action at an appropriate level depending on whether the source of environmental problems predominantly internal or external factors. Removing policy distortions and other obstacles to the implementation of the best from the social point of view of agricultural practices. Wider dissemination of more sustainable approaches is often hampered by inadequate pricing policies and subsidies, or factors such as the unreliable guarantee of rights to use land, lack of access to factors of production, problems with sales and lack of credit. To this end, may use a number of measures for the protection of nature as described below. On the basis of all environmental activities in the field of agricultural production is the optimal way of management, i.e. the conduct of business so that the nature of the cause minimal damage. At least the loss of fertilizer and the optimal technology use, the possible continuation of the surface layer of soil and nutrients, minimal water pollution, the use of pesticides in such quantity and of such technologies, in which the habitat would remain almost unchanged.
It is an important environmental measure to optimize the use of pesticides. It is necessary to find such pesticides that are effective against pests, but at the same time it has a low toxicity to humans and other organisms, easy to digest and the natural environment is not subjected to bioaccumulation. This is a very difficult task, but it needs to be addressed. Therefore, it would require a comprehensive program of pest control through the use of various forms of struggle, including biological methods.
Despite the stated fact by the Kulak et al, that the urban agriculture itself could reduce greenhouse gas emissions , there are more promising and innovative technologies, which have the possibility to make agriculture more environmentally sound, and it does not have to choose between growth and poverty reduction. Among the examples are methods of conservation tillage, improved steam system, the introduction of cover crops, green manure, protection and sustainable use of soil and pest management, a reference point to a greater extent on biodiversity and biological control more than pesticides. One of the main examples of the success achieved in agriculture over the last two decades is a widespread erosion tillage. Because these technologies are mostly oriented to bind to a specific area, their development and adoption need the decentralized and participatory approaches, which would have the opportunity to guide the cooperation of farmers and society. New technologies can also help to improve the management and control of natural resources. Remote sensing technology can help to solve problems related to the environment and public health in intensive rearing of poultry and cattle. Such technology can also facilitate the regulation of the use of surface and groundwater in regions with limited water resources.
The introduction of environmentally sound technologies depends on the adequate development of institutions such as the well-defined and protects property rights and safeguards, especially in the case due to the effects of external factors, some level of joint action. The implementation of the approaches to natural resource management is based on community participation, which is used to help the combating of the severe soil erosion. However, the approaches based on community involvement are not a panacea, and much remains to be learned about the necessary conditions for the successful implementation and expansion of such programs.
The significant environmental protection measure is the disposal of waste and animal husbandry. For example, straw and the tops of the plants receive the use as fertilizer in the agriculture, but without pre-treatment it is ineffective. They should be used in conjunction with animal waste and domestic complex for the production of compost, which is used as an effective organic fertilizer. The great mass of the animal waste is the manure mixed with straw used as bedding for cattle, poultry manure, and liquid manure. Mixtures of these compounds cannot be used directly as an organic fertilizer; they must undergo removal and fermentation of various microorganisms, cysts, helminth eggs (which are the parasitic worms). When disposing of agricultural waste used biotechnology methods. Biotechnology is a technology based on the use of living organisms and biological processes to produce marketable products or cleaning waste. As measures of environmental activities, biotechnology is used for sewage treatment of livestock farms and enterprises for processing of agricultural products. Biotechnological methods are used in the processing of manure and in special devices in which biogas is produced and a mixture of organic compounds in the process of anaerobic digestion, which can be used as organic fertilizer.
Organic farming is also one of the pillars of sustainable development and established the method of resolving environmental problems in the agricultural sector. Countries are investing in green technology; develop innovation, introducing the system of state support in the sector. Organic farming increases the diversity of cultures and the number of beneficial insects, provides long-term soil fertility, high-quality agricultural products. Organic farming does not pollute the soil, air and groundwater chemical fertilizers and means of protection of animals. Organic food products are safe for health, as they contain more vitamins and minerals that improve the health of the population. Organic agriculture can not only avoid the negative effects, but also restore damaged ecosystems through the use of the biological methods to improve soil fertility and plant protection, as well as methods to increase biodiversity, which promotes self-healing processes of ecosystems. It could work for the benefit of the urban agriculture via turning it into the organic and helpful for the majority of the citizens. Therefore, the urban agriculture would combine its benefits and would fight its issues. Still, according to residents of Berea community, before the government would take sufficient actions for the benefit of the society and the global environment, there would be no sufficient changes for the better on the issues of greenhouse emissions.
It is clear that attempts to influence the climate on a global scale pose a much greater risk than regional impromptu. Therefore, in this issue, the society would not prevent extreme caution. The deliberate interference with the climate system, which we still do not know much, can resemble an unknown disease treatment, which sometimes turns out to be far more dangerous than the disease itself. Moreover, the dispersion of aerosols in the stratosphere in the hope of weakening the warming will not prevent all the negative consequences associated with the increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. According to the researched articles, the main mischief proposals affect the climate in ways similar to that described above, is that they distract the attention of state and society from solving the main problem. This issue lies in the energy efficiency growth, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, money and effort required to cope with such pressing problems, such as the development and introduction of renewable energy sources. It seems much more successful fight against global warming could, for example, extending their use and reducing the share of hydrocarbons in the world energy mix, increasing energy efficiency and developing new technologies that contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions in all sectors of economic activity. Therefore, the urban agriculture could not be accepted as the universal tool for the reduction of the greenhouse emissions in the atmosphere, as in fact it is even the cause of the production of the harmful emissions in the atmosphere.