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Beck Aaron – Albert Ellis – Cognitive Behavioral Theory

Beck Aaron – Albert Ellis – Cognitive Behavioral Theory

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a form of psychotherapy which emphasizes the important function of thinking in the way humans feel and do. It was developed by a combination of the two theories of cognition and behavioral, it has found its application in many fields like nursing. CBT has also attracted a lot for criticisms and praises from all quotas. CBT has also had its success and failures in all the areas of application which tends to connect the persons’ reasoning and reaction to the actions and events within the environment. The findings show that CBT has more usefulness, in that it can be incorporated in many treatment programs to influence treatment.

1.0 Description on the theory

CBT is a psychotherapeutic tackle that aims at solving problems involving dysfunctional sentiments, behaviors and cognitions through a goal-oriented, methodical procedure. Used mainly to refer to basic therapy based on a combination of basic behavior and cognition research. It has been successful in treatment of disorders like eating, personality, anxiety, substance abuse and psychotic behavior. The treatment is often manualized with a brief driven in technique, time limited and direct. CBT may be used as a group technique or a personal therapy. Researchers and clinicians often vary in their way of conducting the CBT, some focus on behavior orientation while others on cognition.

2.0 Key constructs of CBT:

According to the National Association of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapists’ (NACB) website, CBT is based on many key constructs one being that of the Cognitive Model of Emotional Response. It further explains that the thoughts of man cause feelings and sentiments but not external events, people or things. People can change the way they think to act/feel better without the change of situation that is the benefit of CBT. Therapist helps the client to get in touch with the clients brain and control the feelings basically using the power of mind (brain). The client is taught how to detach the feelings from what is happening in the environment, situation, and people’s attributes. The power of the mind is put into use to make sure that the feelings of the client should be mind generated.

Second being that CBT is time-Limited and briefer. The website states that CBT is among the fastest in terms of the performances results obtained taking only 16 sessions. CBT is instructive in nature and makes use of homework assignments hence its briefer. The therapist always tells the patient at the beginning of the session that at a point the formal therapy will end, and the ending is a decision made by both the therapist and patient. It being briefer makes use of assignments and home work that keeps the mind (brain) of the client busy. The therapist prepares the client for the final session where the client is expected to display control of emotions with no effect related to either the environment circumstances or even the economic situation of that time affecting the client.

The association also states that a sound therapeutic relationship is effective therapy, but not the focus. CBT believes it’s not enough to have a good relationship with the client but also client change because they learn to think differently and act on that learning, hence focuses on teaching them rational self-counseling. Therapists in CBT mainly base all their counseling on rational self-counseling where therapist ask the client questions that would influence the client to rationalize and when the client responds to the question, therapist uses the answers provided by the client to counsel/guide the client on what to do. This helps the client to understand how to conclude to any feelings and how to rationalize and react to them.

The association (NACB) documented that CBT is collaboration between the therapists and the client. CBT seeks to understand the goals of the client and try to make the client achieve them. The client talks, explains, learns and implements while the therapists listen, encourage and teach. CBT uses communication as a vital element of exchange of thoughts, feelings and likes. Therapist allows the client to ask questions about issues affecting the client while the therapist uses the same questions to elaborate on the factors. The therapist can inquire the client’s goals directly or by use of what the client keeps on talking about, and then assist the client to achieve them, by encouragement.

The website gives further details on CBT that it uses Socratic Method. The therapists always encourage clients ask questions and also ask the clients questions. Therapist of CBT encourages questions-answer method as a form of therapy; therapist uses Socratic technique to study the client’s needs, wants and goals. The treatment based on the questions and answers provided by the client, giving the client an opportunity to question the environment, people and even his/her personality.

CBT being structured and directive is finally elaborated in the NACB’s website. The therapists have specific agendas for the sessions and are taught during each session. CBT focuses on the clients goals. They rather tell their clients how to do and not to do. CBT therapists always have a guideline of what to do in all the sessions. CBT is very specific in that everything is done on the book. Apart from case formulation where therapist comes up with the case the rest is done precisely

3.0 History

According to Rachman CBT started way back in the early 20th century when behavior therapy developed, 1960 when cognitive therapy developed and the merging of the two. Behavior therapeutically approaches appeared as early as 1924. Between 1950 and 1970 was the time when CBT become widely utilized, with researchers in South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States who were inspired by a behaviorist leaming theory of Clark L. Hull, Ivan Pavlov, and John B. Watson.

Rachman S, further writes that previously behavioral approaches were used in treating most of neurotic malady, but had little or even no success in treating depression. Behaviorism started to lose its popularity due to cognitive revolution. Therapeutic approaches of Aaron T. Beck and Albert Ellis gained popularity amongst behavior therapists.

In the book A new guide of rational living by Albert Ellis, it is clear that he started his system in early 1950s by the name rational therapy and now known as the first form of cognitive behavioral therapy. This was partly founded as a replica against popular psychotherapeutic approaches at the time, mostly psychoanalysis.

With inspiration from Ellis, Aaron T Beck developed cognitive therapy in 1960. Cognitive therapy quickly became the favorite intervention technique to be studied in psychotherapy research. Initially it was contrasted with behavioral treatments to evaluate to see which one was more effective. The merging of the two to make Cognitive Behavioral Therapy was done between the late 1980s and early 1990s. Pivotal to the merging treatment for panic disorder was developed by David M. Clark in UK and Barlow H. David in US.

4.0 Compatibility of Theory in Various Areas

The article Essential Research Findings in Counseling and Psychotherapy by Cooper, Mick distinctively elaborate the application of CBT in many clinical and also non-clinical environments, so far it has been used successfully as a treatment for many personality conditions, clinical disorders and behavioral problems. It should be noted that CBT is unlikely to treat psychiatric problems brought by alcohol/drug abuse.

4.1 Anxiety disorders

Ost, L wrote that a basic concept in vivo exposure is used in CBT treatment of anxiety disorder; it is the gradual exposure to actual, feared stimulus. Treatment is commonly based on the theory that fear is classically conditioned also avoidance negatively reinforces and also maintains fear. O. Hobart Mowrer is responsible for this “two-factor” model. This conditioning can be unlearned with the exposure to the stimulus; referred to as extinction and habituation. A specific disorder like fear of spiders is treated with in vivo exposure with also therapist modeling in a basic one session.

Social phobia/social anxiety is treated with exposure coupled normally with cognitive restructuring, like in Heimberg’s protocol of group therapy. Evidence elaborate that cognitive intervention can improve the result of the social phobia treatment. A mentally troubled client is normally given the condition that is in and step by step explanation is given to the client on how to effectively separate the troubles from the brain. The client is normally placed in a relaxed mood to try and make the client feel at home and open up to the therapist.

4.2 Mood disorders

According to Neale in cognitive-behavioral therapy in severe mental disorder, they elaborate that Aaron Beck’s depression theory is an etiological theory that states depressed people rationalize the way they do because of biased thinking towards negative interpretations. It explains that depressed people acquire a negative schema of the planet in childhood and puberty as an effect of hectic life. The negative schemata are activated each time the person encounters a situation that resembles the conditions that the schema was originally learned. CBT has been used successfully in treating clinical depression. CBT tries to correct the negative thinking of the client by giving meaningful explanations to the clients.

4.3 Insomnia

Kingdon D and Price J in cognitive-behavioral therapy in severe mental disorder. Also describe that the lack of sleep is brought about by a lot of factors including pain, mental uneasiness and disorders. CBT has been discovered to be effective in minimizing benzodiazepine usage in insomnia treatment. Addition of CBT to reduce drug consumption in chronic insomnia treatment. CBT is believed to improve in sleep quality, sleep efficiency and sleep latency, for patients receiving the combination of CBT and hypnotics compared to those who receive hypnotics alone. The drugs that are used to treat Insomnia usually keep the client cling to the drugs but the introduction of CBT to the treatment process helps the client to detach him/herself from the medicine very fast after treatment.

4.4 Severe mental disorder

Kingdon D and Price J in cognitive-behavioral therapy in severe mental disorder. Meta-analyses have revealed that CBT is effective in Schizophrenia, and also the APA (American Psychiatric Association) incorporates CBT in Schizophrenia guidelines as a treatment based on evidence.CBT helps patients who suffer from severe mental disorders to associate key feelings and thoughts among factors which precipitate them. The analysis of the mental carried out reveal that CBT manages to treat severe mental disorder by separating key feelings and thoughts from what is happening. Gives the client ability to manipulate his feelings and thoughts hence help the client to reduce the mental disorder.

4.5 CBT on children and adolescents

Briere shows that CBT has been used on children and adolescents with impressive results. Often used to help cure major depressive disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, symptoms connected to trauma and anxiety disorder. Children and adolescents require a lot of care and close monitor in order to understand them. CBT uses stress free concept in dealing with this category, therapist always makes the group at ease to discuss and explain the factors that affect them. Addition of CBT to reduce drug consumption in chronic insomnia treatment. CBT is believed to improve in sleep quality, sleep efficiency and sleep latency, for patients receiving the combination of CBT and hypnotics compared to those who receive hypnotics alone.

5.0 Strengths and Weaknesses of CBT

5.1 Strengths of CBT

Openness to falsifiability not likes some the conceptualization of psychoanalytic approach. People can change the way they think to act/feel better without the change of situation that is the benefit of CBT. Therapist helps the client to get in touch with the clients brain and control the feelings basically using the power of mind.

CBT has grounds in empirical evidence based research. The association of psychiatric (APA) has even listed CBT as an evident-based treatment. CBT helps patients who suffer from severe mental disorders to associate key feelings and thoughts among factors which precipitate them. The analysis of the mental carried out reveal that CBT manages to treat severe mental disorder by separating key feelings and thoughts from what is happening. Gives the client ability to manipulate his feelings.

Ideally it is neither theoretically constructed nor is it technically, interventions are always multiplied beyond necessity. CBT is applied in many clinical and also non-clinical environments, so far it has been used successfully as a treatment for many personality conditions, clinical disorders and behavioral problems. It should be noted that CBT is unlikely to treat psychiatric problems brought by alcohol/drug abuse.

Therapist helps the client to get in touch with the clients brain and control the feelings basically using the power of mind (brain). The client is taught how to detach the feelings from what is happening in the environment, situation, and people’s attributes. The power of the mind is put into use to make sure that the feelings of the client should be mind generated. It is based on the Cognitive Model of Emotional Response explains that the thoughts of man cause feelings and sentiments but not external events, people or things. People can change the way they think to act/feel better without the change of situation that is the benefit of CBT. Therapist helps the client to get in touch with the clients brain and control the feelings basically using the power of mind (brain). The client is taught how to detach the feelings from what is happening in the environment, situation, and people’s attributes. The power of the mind is put into use to make sure that the feelings of the client should be minding generated.

5.2 Weakness of CBT

Cases of formulations are open to be influenced by the therapist and the danger of being imposed to the client despite such flaws. Imposing the cognitive model of change to the client being the least danger.

Cognitive model solemnly determines the case formulation, which has been under criticism for depending on simplistic while its ontological status has remained controversial.

The case formulation is under siege for its acceptance at the face value considering the judgment of the client so to the precision and ‘fit’ of case formulation.

6.0 Conclusion

Building of advanced connections with cognitive science and philosophy. From the findings it is evident that when therapists incorporate CBT in the session’s then clients gets treated faster than when relying on drugs only. It being briefer makes use of assignments and home work that keeps the mind (brain) of the client busy. CBT uses communication as a vital element of exchange of thoughts, feelings and likes. Therapist allows the client to ask questions about issues affecting the client while the therapist uses the same questions to elaborate on the factors. The therapist can inquire the client’s goals directly or by use of what the client keeps on talking about, and then assist the client to achieve them, by encouragement. The therapist prepares the client for the final session where the client is expected to display control of emotions with no effect related to either the environment circumstances or even the economic situation of that time affecting the client. Therapists in CBT mainly base all their counseling on rational self-counseling where therapist ask the client questions that would influence the client to rationalize and when the client responds to the question, therapist uses the answers provided by the client to counsel/guide the client on what to do. This helps the client to understand how to conclude to any feelings and how to rationalize them and react to it. People can change the way they think to act/feel better without the change of situation that is the benefit of CBT. Therapist helps the client to get in touch with the clients brain and control the feelings basically using the power of mind (brain). The client is taught how to detach the feelings from what is happening in the environment, situation, and people’s attributes. The power of the mind is put into use to make sure that the feelings of the client should be mind generated.

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